|Стратонов Всеволод Викторович|
|ЛА ГИР (LA HIRE PHILIPPE DE) Ф.|
|ВЯЙСЯЛЯ (VAISALA YRJO) ИРЬЕ|
|PERROTIN HENRI JOSEPH ANASTASE|
|Цераский Витольд Карлович|
|Залесский Петр Карлович|
|Циолковский Константин Эдуардович|
|Ахматов Виктор Викторович|
18.03.1640, ПАРИЖ ФРАНЦИЯ - 21.04.1718, ПАРИЖ ФРАНЦИЯ
Французский ученый-энциклопедист, художник, архитектор, член Королевской АН (1678-1718). Среди астрономических работ - эфемериды Солнца, Луны и планет. В 1679-82 занимался съемкой побережья Франции, картированием территории. В 1683 им был установлен первый меридианальный инструмент (квадрант радиусом 5 футов, снабженный телескопом) в Парижской обсерватории, где Ла Гир стал преемником Пикара в должности наблюдателя. Многочисленные наблюдения Ла Гира не были сведены в каталог из-за отсутствия средств. Сын Габриэль Ла Гир тоже стал астрономом. История астрономии. А.Паннекук. -М., 1966.
La Hire, Philippe de [Philippe I]
Born: Paris, 18 March 1640
Died: Paris, 21 April 1718
Dateinfo: Dates Certain
Lifespan: 78 2. Family Financial Circumstance: Gov He was the eldest son of Laurent de La Hire, peintre ordinaire du roi, and founder and professor at the Acadщmie Royale de Peinture and Sculpture. La Hire's father was also one of the first disciples of Desargues. No information on financial status.
Schooling: No University He was educated among artists and technicians. At an early age he became interested in perspective, practical mechanics, drawing and painting.
6. Scientific Disciplines
Primary: Astronomy, Mathematics, Mechanics
Subordinate: Zoology, Physiology, Meteorology After his father's death he spent four years in Venice where he developed his artistic talent and studied classical geometry. Upon his
return to France he was active primarily as an artist. He formed a friendship with Abraham Bosse, Desargues last disciple, who asked La Hire to solve a problem in stonecutting. In 1673 La Hire published Nouvelle methode en gщometrie pour les sections des superficies coniques et cylindriques from his research in constructing conic sections. Twelve years later he published a much more extensive work, Sectiones conicae, through which Desargues' projective geometry became known. La Hire published three works in one volume which, though not original, provided an exposition of the properties of conic sections and the progress
of analytic geometry during the half century. After his nomination to the Acadщmie La Hire became active as an astronomer. He produced tables of the movements of the sun, moon, and the planets. He studied the instrumental techniques and particular problems of observation. From 1679-1682 he made several observations and measurements (occasionally with Picard) of different points along the French coastline. He continued his involvment in the mapping project of France (1683) by
extending the meridian of Paris to the north. In 1683 he participated in the experiment of falling bodies with Mariotte. The following two years he directed the surveying operations to provide water to Versailles. He devoted several works to the methods and instruments of
surveying, land measuring, and gnomics. La Hire's work also extended to descriptive zoology, the study of
respiration, and physiological optics. During his many travels he made observations in natural science, meteorology, and physics. At the Paris observatory he conducted experiments in terrestrial magnetism, pluviometry, thermometry, and barometry. In 1695 he published Traitщ de mщcanique, an important work in the
development of modern manuals of manuals.
7. Means of Support
Primary: Government, Academia In 1683 La Hire received the chair of mathematics at the Collшge Royale. He gave courses in astronomy, mechanics, hydrostatics, dioptrics, and
navigation. He became professor of architecture at the Acadщmie Royale (of Architecture) in 1687. For the next thirty years he gave lectures on the
theory of architecture. Throughout his tenure at the Acadщmie des sciences he made several trips for the mapping project of France in addition to his work at the Paris
Types: Court Official, Government Official He enjoyed the patronage of Colbert and Louvois in his position at the Acadщmie. Through his position at the Acadщmie he enjoyed the patronage of the court. He made two planispheres which the king had placed in the
pavillons de Marly.
9. Technological Involvement Types: Applied Mathematics, Cartography, Instruments, Hydraulics, Navigation,
Architecture, Mechanical Devices He developed a leveling instrument for use in surveying. At the Collшge La Hire lectured on navigation, inter alia.
He suggested the epicycloidal profile for gear teeth.
10. Scientific Societies
Memberships: Acadщmie Royal des Sciences, 1678-1718 He was nominated astronome pensionnaire in 1678. He participated in several projects of the Acadщmie. He even edited various writings of his
colleagues, Picard, Mariotte, Roberval, and Frenicle.
Sources 1.Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie gщnщrale, 28. 2.Michaud, Biographie gщnщrale, 23. 3.Fontenelle, Oeuvres Complшtes de Fontenelle, (Paris, 1818), 1, 257-266. 4.Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 132. 5.A. Jal, Dictionnaire critique de biographie et d'histoire, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1872), pp. 730-1. 6.L.A. Sщdillot, "Les professeurs de mathщmatiques et de physique gщnщrale au Collшge de France," Bollettino de bibliografia e di storia delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 2 (1869), 343- 510, especially 498. 7.Renщ Taton, "La premiшre oeuvre gщomщtrique de Philippe de la Hire," Revue d'histoire des sciences, 6 (1953), 93-111. 8.H. Wieleitner, -ber die 'Plani-Coniques' von de la Hire," Archiv f№r die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, 5 (1913), 49-55. Nothing biographical in this article. 9.Christian Sandler, Die Reformation der Kartographie un 1700, (M№nchen and Berlin, 1905). 10.M. Daumas, ed. Histoire gщnщrale des techniques, 2 (Paris, 1964), 285-6, 540-1. 11.This extensive bibliography is misleading. It records my effort to find something about him beyond the small budget of information in Fontenelle's щloge, which is apparently the source of every biographical treatment of La Hire. There is an extraordinary dearth of material on this important man.
Compiled by: Richard S. Westfall Department of History and Philosophy of Science Indiana University
The Galileo Project Development Team: email@example.com ___________________________________________________________________________
Philippe de La Hire
Born: 18 March 1640 in Paris, France
Died: 21 April 1718 in Paris, France
Philippe de la Hire was educated as an artist and became skilled in drawing and painting. He visited Italy where he spent four years developing his artistic skills and learning geometry. The interest in geometry arose
from his study of perspective in art. La Hire was elected to the Acadщmie Royal des Sciences in 1678. In 1683 he was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the Collшge Royale. Four years later he was appointed, in addition, to the chair of architecture at the Acadщmie Royale. Much influenced by the work of Desargues, La Hire worked on conic sections which he treated projectively. He published his first work on conic sections Nouvelle methode en gщometrie pour les sections des superficies coniques et cylindriques in 1673. In 1675 he published a more comprehensive work on conic sections Sectiones conicae which contained a description of Desargues' projective geometry. In 1708 he calculated the
length of the cardioid. Other topics to which he made important contributions included astronomy, physics and geodesy. In astronomy he installed the first transit instrument in the Paris Observatory. He also produced tables giving the movements of
the Sun, Moon and the planets. He did much work on surveying, in particular taking measurements of the French coastline. He designed an instrument to find the level at a site. He was also a major contributor to a project to map France. La Hire's maps of the Earth were made with the centre of projection, not at the pole, but at r/sqrt>2 along a radius produced through
the pole (where r is the radius of the Earth).
La Hire also wrote on magic squares. Among the curves investigated by La Hire were the Cardioid, the Epicycloid, the Epitrochoid, the Hypocycloid and the Hypotrochoid
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