|Луцкий Валерий Константинович|
|ПРОКТОР (PROCTOR) РИЧАРД ЭНТОНИ|
|Жонголович Иван Данилович|
|Лозинская Татьяна Александровна|
|АРАТ (ARATUS) СОЛИЙСКИЙ|
|Миркалов Юрий Антонович|
|ПЕТЦВАЛЬ (PETZVAL JOZEPH MIKSA)|
18.12.1639, ГУБЕН, БЕРЛИН - 25.07.1710, БЕРЛИН ГЕРМАНИЯ
Немецкий астроном, некоторое время был помощником Я. Гевелия, с 1700 директор Берлинской обсерватории. Наблюдал кометы, переменные звезды, определил период "хи" Лебедя - 404,25 дня (1686). Опубликовал в Лейпциге ряд эфемерид за 1681-90. В приложении к эфемериде за 1682 привел краткий список туманностей, одну из которых наблюдал впервые сам - М11 в созвездии Щит. Открыл также туманность М5 в созвездии Змея (1702). Астрономами были его жена Мария Кирх и сын Христоф. Их фамилия занесена на карту Луны. АБС, POGG-1.
Born: Guben, Germany, 18 Dec 1639
Died: Berlin, 25 Jul 1710
Dateinfo: Dates Certain
2. Father Occupation: Artisan He was the son of a tailor. Because of unrest, his parents had had to flee Poland, leaving all of their belongings, and Gottfried apparently had to provide for himself while continuing his education.
That is, they were poor.
Birth: Guben, Germany
Death: Berlin, Germany
4. Education Schooling: Jena He studied at Jena under the polyhistorian Erhard Weigel. No mention of a degree. He learned practical astronomy from Hevelius in Danzig, probably acting
as some kind of apprentice.
6. Scientific Disciplines
7. Means of Support Primary: Calendars, Government He lived in mostly in Leipzig and Coburg, until he moved to Guben around 1690, making his living by computing and publishing calendars and ephemerides. His first calendar appeared in 1667, and it was published annually from 1685- 1710, when his son took over. In 1700, he was called to Berlin by Frederick III, elector of Brandenburg (later Frederick I of Prussia) as the first astronomer at the observatory to be established with the new Berlin Academy. He received a salary of 500 taler which was taken out of the earnings from the new calendar
monopoly established by Friedrich in 1700.
8. Patronage Types: Scientist, Court Official, Aristrocrat, Academic Erhard Weigel, his first teacher, ought to be counted as a patron. First, he recommended Kirch to Hevelius, from whom Kirch learned how to observe and how to calculate calendars. Later, in 1697, Weigel appeared at the Reichstag in Regensburg advocating the acceptance of the Gregorian calendar by the Protestant princes. He told his former student Leibniz of his plan for the foundation of a "collegium artis consultorum" of approximately 20 members which should work for the Reichstag in exectuing the calendar reform and thereafter hold the monopoly on calendar production. Leibniz lobbied his patroness Sophie Charlotte of Brandeburg, and she, in turn, convinced her husband, Elector Friedrich, of the uselfulness of such a scientific society. "The KЎniglich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin" was founded in 1700. Leibnitz, its first president, called Gottfried Kirch to Berlin as astronomer of the Society to carry through the calendar reform which had been approved in 1699. The calendar monopoly (whose income was estimated at 2500 taler in 1700) was the primary source of income for the Berlin academy for the entire 18th century. Clearly, Frederick III was his most important patron. Even before he called Kirch to Berlin (1700), some friends had seen his pitiful financial situation in Leipzig and had appealed to the Elector, without Kirch's knowledge, for a stipend. He granted it, but Kirch refused it, fearing some poor students, for whom the funds had originally been intended, would be deprived. While in Berlin awaiting the construction of the new observatory (which was not finished in his lifetime), Kirch made some observations at the private observatory of Baron Bernhard Friedrich von Krosigk, a wealthy
nobleman and amateur astronomer.
9. Technological Involvement Type: Instruments Kirch made a number of instruments, and also invented a new circular
10. Scientific Societies Membership: Berlin Academy Kirch was the first astronomer at the observatory of the newly-established
Berlin academy (1700).
Sources 1.Guenther, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 15, 787-8. 2.Diedrich Wattenberg, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952-), 11, 634-5. 3.P. Aufgebauer, "Die Astronomenfamilie Kirch," Die Sterne, 47 (1971), 241-7.
Not Available and Not Consulted 1.J.E. Bode, Astronomisches Jahrbuck f№r das Jahr 1816, (Berlin, 1813), pp. 111, 113f. H. Ludendorff, "Zur Fr№hgeschichte der Astronomie in Berlin," Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaft, Vortrфge und Schriften, 9 (1942).
Compiled by: Richard S. Westfall Department of History and Philosophy of Science Indiana University The Galileo Project Development Team: firstname.lastname@example.org ___________________________________________________________________________ Kirch, Gottfried Gottfried Kirch was born on the 18th December 1639 in Guben as the son of a tailor. He began his astronomical studies with E. Weigel in Jena. To improve his observing skills he was sent to Hevel in Danzig. From 1667 on he published calendars. For his work he aquired a 4-foot quadrant and some telescopes. In 1679 he designed and build a micrometer for more
exact observations. One of G. Kirch's papers describes his observations of the variable star Mira, discovered by David Fabricius in 1596. On the 18th November 1680 Kirch discovered the bright comet of that year. It was the first comet to be discovered with a telescope. Georg Samuel Doerffel observed the comet as well and based on this he first described parabolic orbits for comets. 1686 G. Kirch discovered the star chi Cygni as variable and observed, together with C. Arnold in Leipzig, the comet of this year. Here in Leipzig he met his second wife, Maria Margaretha, daughter of the clergyman Matthias Winkelmann. He married her in 1692. His first wife had died in 1690. Kirch and his wife Maria lived and worked together in Guben for 8 years before moving to Berlin in 1700. There he was director of the planned Observatory and prepare the official calendars. These calendars he published until 1710 with the help of his wife and the assistant J. H. Hoffmann. After G. Kirchs death on 25th July 1710 in Berlin his children Christfried (until 1740) and
Christine (until 1772) continued this work. The new Observatory was first used in 1708, but officially opened in 1711. Until 1708 G. Kirch observed at the private Observatory of Bernhard F. v.
Krosigk. This page created by Chris Plicht email@example.com Comments welcome.
ОТКРЫТИЕ, 01.09.1681, ЛЕЙПЦИГ
Открыл звездное скопление М11 (NGC 6705).
ОТКРЫТИЕ, 05.05.1702, БЕРЛИН ГЕРМАНИЯ
Открыл звездное скопление М5 (NGC 5904).
ОТКРЫТИЕ КОМЕТЫ, 26.10.1699, ГУБЕН БЕРЛИН
Открыл комету, которая как установили позднее, оказалась периодической (комета Темпеля-Туттля). Свое название комета получила после ее переоткрытия Темпелем (1865) и Туттлем (1866). Идентичность этих комет установил Й. Шубарт (1966). ККК.
ОТКРЫТИЕ КОМЕТЫ, 22.12.1680, ?
ОТКРЫТИЕ КОМЕТЫ, 18.11.1680, ?
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